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YM Chew, RA Cross (2023)
Taxol acts differently on different tubulin isotypes
Communications Biology 6 (1), 946 2 2023 [Link]

M Sugawa, Y Maruyama, M Yamagishi, RA Cross, J Yajima (2022)
Motor generated torque drives coupled yawing and orbital rotations of kinesin coated gold nanorods
Communications Biology 5 (1), 1368 2022 [Link]

N Siddiqui, D Roth, A Toleikis, AJ Zwetsloot, RA Cross, A Straube (2022)
Force generation of KIF1C is impaired by pathogenic mutations
Current Biology 32 (17), 3862-3870. e6 [Link]

Algirdas Toleikis, Nicholas J. Carter & Robert A. Cross (2020)
Backstepping mechanism of kinesin
Biophysical Journal 119 1984-1994 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2020.09.034

[Open] [pubmed abstract] [pdf] [supplementary material] [Video_Abstract]

Yean Ming Chew & Robert A. Cross (2020)
Molecular Motors: Kif14s disordered dongle
Current Biology 30 R988-R990 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.06.095

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

Loeffelholz2 O. Von Loeffelholz, A. Peña, D.R. Drummond, R.A. Cross, C.A. Moores (2020)
4.5 Å Cryo-EM Structure of Yeast Kinesin-5-Microtubule Complex Reveals a Distinct Binding Footprint and Mechanism of Drug Resistance
J. Mol. Biol. 432 864-872 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2019.01.011

[Open] [pubmed abstract] [pdf] [6S8M.pdb]

LatticePlasticity Cross, R.A. (2019)
Microtubule lattice plasticity

Current Opinion in Cell Biology DOI: 10.1016/j.ceb.2018.10.004

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]


John C Meadows, Liam J Messin, Anton Kamnev, Theresa C Lancaster, Mohan K Balasubramanian, Robert A Cross, Jonathan BA Millar (2018)
Opposing kinesin complexes queue at plus tips to ensure microtubule catastrophe at cell ends
EMBO reports e46196 DOI: 10.15252/embr.201846196

[Open] [pubmed abstract] [pdf]


McHugh, T., Drechsler, H., McAinsh, A.D., Carter, N.J. & Cross R.A. (2018)
Kif15 functions as an active mechanical ratchet
Mol Biol Cell. mbcE18030151. DOI:

[Open] [pubmed abstract] [pdf]


Peet, D.R., Burroughs, N.J. & Cross, R.A. (2018)
Kinesin expands and stabilizes the GDP-microtubule lattice
Nat Nanotechnol

doi: 10.1038/s41565-018-0084-4
[Open] [pubmed abstract]

pombe MT Ottilie von Loeffelholz, Neil A. Venables, Douglas R. Drummond, Miho Katsuki, Robert A. Cross & Carolyn A. Moores (2017)
Nucleotide– and Mal3-dependent changes in fission yeast microtubules suggest a structural plasticity view of dynamics
Nature Communications, 8: 2110

[Open] [pubmed abstract]

Cut7 Mishan Britto, Adeline Goulet, Syeda Rizvi, Ottilie von Loeffelholz, Carolyn A. Moores, and Robert A. Cross (2016)
Schizosaccharomyces pombe kinesin-5 switches direction using a steric blocking mechanism

PNAS DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1611581113

[Open] [pubmed abstract]

curv Junqi Huang, Ting Gang Chew, Ying Gu, Saravanan Palani, Anton Kamnev, Douglas S. Martin, Nicholas J. Carter, Robert A. Cross, Snezhana Oliferenko and Mohan K Balasubramanian (2016)
Curvature-induced expulsion of actomyosin bundles during cytokinetic ring contraction

eLife 2016;10.7554/eLife.21383
[Open] [pubmed abstract]

2WRobert A. Cross (2016)
Mechanochemistry of the kinesin-1 ATPase

Biopolymers DOI: 10.1002/bip.22862


[pubmed abstract]

Alp14 Frauke Hussmann, Douglas R. Drummond, Daniel Peet, Douglas S. Martin & Robert A. Cross (2016)
Alp7/TACC-Alp14/TOG generates long-lived, fast-growing MTs by an unconventional mechanism

Nature Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/srep20653

[Open] [pubmed abstract]

ISCAT Joanna Andrecka, Jaime Ortega Arroyo, Katie Lewis, Robert A. Cross, and Philipp Kukura (2016)
Label-free Imaging of Microtubules with Sub-nm Precision Using Interferometric Scattering Microscopy

Biophysical Journal 110 214-217

[Open] [pubmed abstract]

kozCross, R.A. (2015)
Mechanisms of action of Eg5 inhibitors
in Kinesins and Cancer ed. Frank Kozielski Springer, 2015 ISBN 978-94-017-9732-0 (ebook)
[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

pitstopCross RA and McAinsh AD (2014)
Prime movers: the mechanochemistry of mitotic kinesins.

Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 15:257-271
[pubmed abstract] [Open]

Katsuki, M., Drummond, D.R. & Cross, R.A. (2014)
Ectopic A-lattice seams destabilise microtubules
Nature Communications 5:3094

DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4094
[pubmed abstract] [Open] [pdf]

pickle Marta Klejnot, Aditi Falnikar, Venka Ulaganathan, Robert A. Cross, Peter W. Baas, Frank Kozielski (2014)
The crystal structure and biochemical characterisation of Kif15 - a bifunctional molecular motor involved in bipolar spindle formation and neuronal development

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 70(Pt 1):123-33

[pubmed] [pdf] [4BN2.pdb]

Wolman, A.J.M., Sanchez-Cano, C., Carstairs, H.M.J., Cross, R.A. & Turberfield, A.J. (2013)
Transport and self-organization across different length scales powered by motor proteins and programmed by DNA

Nature Nanotechnology DOI: 10.1038/NNANO.2013.230
[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

klp5/6Erent, M., Drummond, D.R., Cross R.A (2012)
S. pombe kinesins-8 promote both nucleation and catastrophe of microtubules

PLoS ONE 7, e30738 - e30738
[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

egtimerKaseda, K., McAinsh, A.D. & Cross, R.A. (2012)
Dual pathway spindle assembly increases both the speed and the fidelity of mitosis

Biology Open, Nov 2. doi: 10.1242/​bio.2011012
[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

strikingGrant, B.J., Gheorghe, D., Zheng,W., Alonso, M., Huber, G., Dlugosz,M., McCammon, J.A. & Cross, R.A. (2011)
Electrostatically biased binding of kinesin to microtubules

PLOS Biology 9(11) e1001207. Epub 2011 Nov 29

[Open] [pubmed abstract]

motorizationCross, R.A., McAinsh, A.D. & Straube A. (2011)
Mechanochemical Cell Biology

Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

xxxDrummond, D.R. (2011)
Regulation of microtubule dynamics by kinesins

Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology, Oct 5. DOI

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

TubulinDrummond D.R., Kain S., Newcombe A., Hoey C., Katsuki M., Cross R.A. (2011)
Purification of Tubulin from the Fission Yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

Methods in Molecular Biology, 777 29-55 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

xxxKatsuki M., Muto E., Cross R.A. (2011)
Preparation of dual-color polarity-marked fluorescent microtubule seeds.

Methods in Molecular Biology, 777 117-26 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

k14Cross RA (2010)
Kinesin-14: the roots of reversal

BMC Biology 12 8:107 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Kaseda, K., McAinsh,A.D. & Cross, R.A. (2009)
Walking, hopping, diffusing and braking modes of kinesin-5

Biochemical Society Transactions 37 1066-71 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

Mal3 Katsuki,M., Drummond, D.R., Osei, M. & Cross, R.A. (2009)
Mal3 masks catastrophe events in Schizosacharomyces pombe microtubules by inhibiting shrinkage and promoting rescue
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 23 29246-50 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [supp. mat.] [pdf] [movie s1] [movie s2] [movie s3]

Klp2 Braun M., Drummond, D., Cross R.A. & McAinsh A.D. (2009)
Klp2 organizes microtubules into parallel bundles by an ATP-dependent sorting mechanism
Nature Cell Biology 11 724-30 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf] [supp. mat.] [movie s1] [movie s2] [movie s3] [movie s4] [movie s5] [movie s6] [movie s7]

eg5 DesGeorges, A., Katsuki, M., Drummond, D.R., Osei, M., Cross, R.A. & Amos, L.A. (2008)
Mal3, the S. pombe homologue of EB1, changes the microtubule lattice
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 15 1102-8 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Cross R.A. (2008)
Single molecule for the people
Nature Cell Biology 10 1014

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Dunn, S., Morrison, E., Liverpool,T., Molina-Paris, C., Cross, R., Alonso, M. & Peckham, M. (2008)
Differential trafficking of kinesin-1 (Kif5c) on tyrosinated and detyrosinated microtubules in live cells
Journal of Cell Science 121 1085-95 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Kaseda,K., Crevel, I., Hirose, K., Cross, R. (2008)
Single headed mode of kinesin-5
EMBO Reports 9 761-765 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Grant, B., McCammon,A., Caves, L.S. & Cross, R.A. (2007)
Multivariate analysis of conserved sequence-structure relationships in kinesins: coupling of the active site and a tubulin-binding subdomain
Journal of Molecular Biology 368 1231-1248 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf]

eg5 Alonso,M.C., Drummond, D.R., Kain, S., Hoeng, J., Amos, L.A. & Cross, R.A. (2007)
An ATP-gate controls tubulin binding by the tethered head of kinesin-1
Science 316 120-123 DOI:

[pubmed abstract] [pdf] [supp mat]

Carter N.J. & Cross R.A. (2006)
Kinesins moonwalk
Current Opinion in Cell Biology 18 61-67

Skoufias, D.A., DeBonis, S., Saoudi,Y. Lebeau, L., Crevel, I., Cross, R., Wade, R., Hackney, D. & Kozielski, F. (2006)
S-Trityl-L-cysteine is a reversible, tight-binding inhibitor of the human kinesin Eg5 that specifically blocks mitotic progression

Carter N.J. & Cross R.A. (2005)
Mechanics of the kinesin step
Nature 435 308-12

Yajima J. & Cross R.A. (2005)
A torque component in the kinesin-1 power stroke
Nature Chemical Biology 1 338-341

Cross R.A. (2005)
Intracellular transport
Encyclopaedia of the Life Sciences in press

Eickel V. Drummond D. Kendrick-Jones J. & Cross R.A. (2004)
Kinesin heads fused to hinge-free myosin tails drive efficient motility
FEBS letters 569 54-58

Crevel I. M-T. C. Alonso M. & Cross R.A. (2004)
Monastrol stabilises an attached low-friction state of Eg5
Current Biology 14 R411-R412

Cross R.A. (2004)
The kinetic mechanism of kinesin
Trends in Biochemical Sciences 89 301-309

Crevel I.M. Nyitrai M. Alonso M.C. Weiss S Geeves M.A. Cross R.A. (2004)
What kinesin does at roadblocks: the coordination mechanism for molecular walking
EMBO J Jan 14; 23(1): 23-32

DeBonis S, Simorre JP, Crevel I, Lebeau L, Skoufias DA, Blangy A, Ebel C, Gans P, Cross R, Hackney DD, Wade RH, Kozielski F. (2003)
Interaction of the mitotic inhibitor monastrol with human kinesin Eg5
Biochemistry 42 338-49

Olga Krylyshkina,Irina Kaverina,Wolfgang Kranewitter,Walter Steffen,W Maria C. Alonso,Robert A. Cross and J. Victor Small (2002)
Modulation of substrate adhesion dynamics via microtubule targeting requires kinesin-1
J.Cell Biol 156 349-60

Yajima J., Alonso M.C., Cross R.A. & Toyoshima Y.Y (2002)
Direct long-term observation of kinesin processivity at low load
Current Biology 12 301-6

Drummond D.R. Carter N.J. & Cross R.A. (2002)
Multiphoton versus confocal high resolution z-sectioning of eGFP microtubules. Increased multiphoton photobleaching within the focal plane can be compensated using a Pockels cell and dual widefield detectors
J. Microscopy 206 161-169

Kallipolitou A., Deluca D., Majdic,U., Laksemper S., Cross R.A., Meyhs¹fer E, Moroder L., Schliwa,M., Woehlke G. (2001)
Unusual properties of the fungal conventional kinesin neck domain from Neurospora crassa
EMBO J. 20 6226-6235

Rogers K.R., Weiss S., Crevel, I., Brophy, P.J., Geeves, M.A. & Cross, R.A. (2001)
Kif1d is a fast nonprocessive kinesin that demonstrates novel K-loop-dependent mechanochemistry
EMBO J. 20 5101-5113

Cross R.A. (2001)
Kinesins string variable
Current Biology 11 R147-R149

Cross R.A. (2000)
Directing Direction (News & Views)
Nature 406 839-840

Nicolau D.V., Cross R. (2000)
Protein profiled features patterned via confocal microscopy
Biosens Bioelectron. Mar 15 85-91.

Drummond, D.R. & Cross R.A. (2000)
Dynamics of interphase microtubules in Schizosacharomyces pombe
Current Biology 10 766-775

Cross, R.A. & Carter,N.J. (2000)
Molecular Motors: a primer

Current Biology 10 R177-179

Anderson K. & Cross R.A. (2000)
Contact dynamics in keratocyte motility
Current Biology 10 253-260

Cross R.A. (2000)
Molecular Motors: Kinesins dynamically dockable neck
Current Biology 10

Carter N. & Cross R.A. (2000)
An improved microscope for bead and surface based motility assays
Methods in Molecular Biology ed. Isabelle Vernos

Rogers K. & Cross R.A. (2000)
Human Kinesin
Encyclopaedia of Molecular Medicine (Ed Crighton, Wiley, N.Y.)

Cross R.A., Crevel I., Carter,N..J., Alonso, M.C., Hirose, K., and Amos, L.A. (2000)
The conformational cycle of kinesin
Proc. Roy.Soc.Ser.B

Cross R.A. (2000)
The mechano-biochemistry of molecular motors
Introductory article to Molecular Motors Essays in Biochemistry 35

Cross, R.A. (1999)
Walking Talking heads (dispatch)
Current Biology 9 R854-R856

Crevel, I., Carter, N., Schliwa, M. and Cross, R.A. (1999)
Coupled chemical and mechanical steps in a processive Neurospora kinesin
EMBO J 18 5863-5872 medline abstract

Cross R.A. and Scholey, J. (1999)
Kinesin: the tail unfolds
Nature Cell Biology 1 E119-121 medline abstract [pdf] [html]

Small, J.V., Rottner,K., Hahne,P. and Anderson,K.I. (1999)
Visualising the actin cytoskeleton
Microscopy Research and Technique 00 1-15

Hirose K., Lowe,J., Alonso,M., Cross, R.A. and Amos,L.A. (1999)
Conguent docking of dimeric kinesin and ncd into 3D Cryo-electron microscopy maps of microubule motor.ADP complexes
Mol Biol Cell 10 2063-2074

Cross R.A. (1999)
Intracellular Transport
Encyclopaedia of the Life Sciences

Mazumdar M. and Cross, R.A. (1998)
Engineering a lever into the kinesin neck
J Biol. Chem. 273 29352-29359

Hirose K., Cross R.A., and Amos L. A. (1998)
Nucleotide-dependent Structural Changes in Dimeric NCD Molecules complexed to microtubules
J.Mol.Biol. 278 389-400

Alonso M.C., van Damme, J., Vandekerckhove,J. and Cross R.A. (1998)
Proteolytic mapping of kinesin/ncd- microtubule interface: Nucleotide-dependent conformational changes in the loops L8 and L12
EMBO J 17 945-951

Cross R.A. (1998)
Microtubule Motility Assays
in Cell Biology a Laboratory Handbook ed Celis J E 2nd edition vol 2 pp317-326

Crevel I-M T C., Lockhart, A. Cross, R.A. (1997)
Kinetic evidence for low processivity in ncd and Eg5
J Mol Biol 273 160-170

Cross R.A. (1997)
The Natural Economy of Kinesin
Current Biology 7 R631-633

Cross, R.A.(1997)
Kinesins ratchet reversed: a diverting tail (News and Views)
Nature 389 15-16

Amos L.A. and Cross, R.A. (1997)
Structural dynamics of molecular motors
Current Opinion in Structural Biology 7 239-246

Hirose, K., Amos, W.B., Lockhart, A. Cross, R.A. and Amos,L.A. (1997)
Three dimensional cryoelectron microscopy of 16-protofilament microtubules: structure, polarity and interaction with motor proteins
J. Struc. Biol. 118 140-148

Cross, R.A. (1997)
A protein-making motor protein (News and Views)
Nature 385 18-19

Hirose, K., Lockhart, A. Cross, R.A. and Amos,L.A. (1996)
Three dimensional cryoelectron microscopy of dimeric kinesin and ncd motor domains on microtubules
PNAS 93 9539-9544

Fan,J. Griffiths, A., Lockhart, A., Cross, R.A. and Amos, L.A. (1996)
Microtubule minus ends can be labelled with a phage display antibody specific to alpha tubulin
J.Mol.Biol. 259 325-330

Crevel M-T. C., Lockhart,A. and Cross, R.A. (1996)
Weak and strong states of kinesin and ncd
J.Mol. Biol 257 66-76

Lockhart,A. and Cross, R.A. (1996)
Kinetics and Motility of the Eg5 Microtubule Motor
Biochemistry 35 2365-2373

Hirose, K., Lockhart, A., Cross, R.A. & Amos, L.A. (1995)
Nucleotide-dependent angular change in kinesin motor domain bound to tubulin
Nature 376 277-279

Cross R.A. (1995)
On the hand over hand footsteps of kinesin heads
J Mus Res Cell Mot 16 91-94 1995

Lockhart, A., Cross, R.A. McKillop,D.F.A. (1995)
ADP release is the rate limiting step of the MT activated ATPase of non-claret disjunctional and kinesin
FEBS Lett. 368 531-535

Lockhart, A., Crevel, M-T. C. & Cross, R.A. (1995)
Kinesin and ncd bind through a single head to microtubules and compete for shared MT binding site
J.Mol.Biol. 249 763-771

Lockhart,A. and Cross, R.A. (1994)
Origins of reversed directionality in the ncd molecular motor
EMBO J. 13 751-757

1993 (null)

(24) Hodge, T.P., Cross, R.A. and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1992) Role of a COOH-terminal nonhelical domain in the self-assembly of a vertebrate myosin rod J. Cell Biol. 118 1085-1095

(23) Cross R.A. & Kendrick-Jones J. (1992) MgATP binding changes neither the shape nor the flexibility of the heads of single myosin molecules J Struct. Biol. 109 208-213

(22) Way, M., Pope, B., Cross, R.A., Kendrick-Jones, J. and Weeds, A.G. (1992) Expression of the N-terminal domain of dystrophin in E. Coli and demonstration of binding to F-actin. FEBS letters 301 243-245

(21) Cross, R.A. and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1991) (eds.) Molecular Motors J. Cell Sci supplement 14, The Company of Biologists, Cambridge UK.

(20) Cross, R.A. and Engel, A. (1991) STEM mass determination of in vitro self-assembled smooth muscle myosin filaments J. Mol. Biol. 222 455-458

(19) Cross, R.A., Geeves, M.A. and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1991) A nucleation-elongation mechanism for the self-assembly of side polar sheets of smooth muscle myosin EMBO J. 10 747-756

(18) Faruqi, A.R., Cross, R.A. and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1991) Solution small-angle X-ray scattering studies on myosin with a multiwire area detector J Appl Cryst 24 852-856

(17) Ankrett, R.J., Rowe, A.J., Cross, R.A., Kendrick-Jones, J., and Bagshaw, C.R. (1991) A folded 10S conformer of myosin from a striated muscle and its implications for regulation of ATPase activity J. Mol. Biol. 217 323-335

(16) Redwood C.R, Marston, S., Bryan, J., Cross, R.A.and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1990) Functional properties of a full length and a mutant chicken gizzard caldesmon expressed in E. Coli. FEBS Letters 270 53-56

(15) Cross, R.A. , Stewart, M. and Kendrick-Jones, J. (1990) Structural predictions for the central domain of dystrophin FEBS Letters 262 87-92

(14) Cross, R.A. (1989) Smooth Operators: The molecular mechanics of smooth muscle contraction Bioessays 11 18-21

(13) Citi, S., Cross, R.A., Bagshaw,C.R. and Kendrick - Jones,J.(1989) Parallel modulation of conformation and enzyme activity of brush border myosin by monoclonal antibodies J.Cell Biol. 109 549-556

(12) Cross, R.A. (1989) The self-assembly mechanism of nonsarcomeric myosins in Structure, Interactions and assembly of cytoskeletal and extracellular proteins Springer series in Biophysics Ed. P.M. Bayley) Eds. U Aebi, J. Engel, Springer-Verlag

(11) Cross, R.A., Jackson, A.P., Citi, S., Kendrick-Jones, J. and Bagshaw, C.R. (1988) Active site trapping of nucleotide by smooth and nonmuscle myosins J.Mol. Biol. 203 173-181

(10) Bennett, J.P., Cross, R.A., Kendrick-Jones, J. and Weeds, A.G. (1988) Spatial pattern of myosin phosphorylation in contracting smooth muscle cells: Evidence for contractile zones J Cell Biol. 107 2623-2629

(9) Cross R.A., Citi,S. and Kendrick Jones, J. (1988) How phosphorylation controls the self-assembly of vertebrate smooth and non-muscle myosins Biochem Soc Trans 16 501-503

(8) Cross, R.A., Cross, K.E. and Small, J.V. (1987) Salt dependent dimeri sation of caldesmon FEBS Letters 219 306-310

(7) Cross, R.A. & Vandekerckhove (1986) Solubility-determining domain of smooth muscle myosin rod FEBS Lett. 200 355-360

(6) Cross, R.A., Cross, K.E. and Sobieszek,A. (1986) ATP-linked monomer-polymer equilibrium of smooth muscle myosin: the free folded monomer traps ADP.Pi EMBO J 5 2637-2641

(5) Furst,D.O., Cross, R.A. DeMey,J. and Small, J.V. (1986) Caldesmon is an elongated, flexible molecule localised in the actomyosin domains of smooth muscle EMBO J 5 251-257

(4) Cross,R.A. and Sobieszek, A. (1985) Influence of smooth muscle myosin conformation on myosin light chain kinase binding and on phosphorylation FEBS Lett. 188 367-374

(3) Cross,R.A. (1984) Bending of smooth muscle myosin rod FEBS Lett. 176 197-201

(2) Cross,R.A., Bardsley,R.G, Ledward,D.A. Small, J.V. and Sobieszek,A. (1984) Conformational stability of the myosin rod Eur.J. Biochem. 145 305-310

(1) Cross,R.A., Bardsley,R.G, Ledward,D.A. Small, J.V. and Sobieszek,A. (1983) Reversible helix-coil transition of pig stomach myosin rod FEBS lett. 162 18